Kohti kestävämpää kotieläintuotantoa – Miten maatalous vaikuttaa ympäristön resistomiin?Antimicrobial drug resistance threatens the future of humankind, but the problem is environmental origin. Soils are known to harbor immense amount of microbes carrying intrinsic resistance features against antimicrobial drugs and genetic elements encoding these features are known as the environmental resistome. Antimicrobials are used in livestock production and animal manure is used as a fertilizer. Manure application affects the microbial communities in agroecosystems, causing selection for antimicrobial resistance, increasing the mobility of resistance genes and thus elevates the risk of resistance gene migration to bacteria capable of causing diseases. The aim of this project is to try to find a safe operating space for animal production by answering the following questions: Are the farm resistomes different if the use of antimicrobials is on different level? How much and how often manure can be land-applied to agricultural soils without increasing the genetic mobility?